The Universal Hologram
Laser Chakra device by Cherry Optical Company all rights reserved

Cherry Optical Holography

What is Holography?
By Nancy Gorglione

A Hologram is a three-dimensional photograph recorded through the positive interference of waves of laser light. Clear film windows of space, holograms can contain projected images, floating out in front of the hologram. Receding background images mark depth in space, while parallax - the ability to see around objects to objects placed behind, reinforces the true three dimensional effect for the viewer. Moving Holograms portray moments in time. And, Holograms can be breathtakingly beautiful.

Holography as Art Form is a profound media which allows the artist to record a three dimensional image that can contain aspects of both time and space, on a single, flat film plane. Moving, kinetic colorations; additive color mixture; time smear; space within space, and parallax plays; depth and projection; overlapping of imagery; all can produce stunning effects unique to the media.

A Hologram is a diffraction record of the positive interference of two wave fronts of laser light. Originally recorded on a photosensitive emulsion, the hologram is composed of a series of very fine lines which diffract or bend the reconstruction light back on the path of the original object. A hologram is a diffraction record of the in-phase light waves that reached the holographic film during its exposure.

Holography Graphics developed for Forsyth Gallery at Texas A & M University by N. Gorglione. Copyright 2017

The Object Light is the light that illuminates the object, then bounces off the object and strikes the film. The Reference Beam is a clean spread of collimated laser light covering the film. Where the Object Beam and the Reference Beam meet on the film, they record the image in all its true three-dimensional glory. We Reconstruct the original holographic image by shining a light through the holographic film at the same angle as the original Reference Beam. This angle is called the reconstruction angle. Read more about it on our Transmission Hologram Art Page and Reflection Hologram Art Page.

All waves obey all ways

The positive interference of the Object and Reference Beams record the holographic image. An analog is ocean waves, which can be observed reinforcing each other to grow larger, or splashing into each other to diminish in size. Where the peaks or troughs of our laser’s waves meet in the holographic film, the parts that reinforce each other -called Positive Interference, are bright enough and energized enough to start an energy transition in the holographic film. Since a laser used for holography is coherent in time and space, it emits a continuous stream of light waves whose peaks and troughs travel on the same paths together, in-phase.

Holography continuous wave lasers emit a clean single mode or stream of in-phase photons, coherent in time and space. Pulsed lasers emit very bright brief coherent flashes to record animate objects, portraiture; while multiple pulses can produce interferograms.

The most common holographic film contains very fine resolution grains of silver halide evenly distributed throughout a binding and adhering gelatin.  The basic exposure formula is
“absorption of the photon supplies energy to free an electron which can move through the crystal lattice” (of the silver halide gelatin film.) At one of the evenly distributed crystal imperfections, the freed electron is trapped. This further attracts interstitial ions (charged particles) of silver which continue to build up throughout the exposure. “A latent image spec of of at least 3 or 4 silver atoms is necessary for catalyzing development.”
Quotes and paraphrasing of: Silver Halide Photographic Materials, by K. Biedermann, in Holographic Recording Materials in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 20. Edited by H.M. Smith Spinger-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, New York.

After exposure, the film is developed, stopped, and then bleached, which re-halogenates the silver and turns it into a salt which kind of acts like a series of miniature lenses. The Reconstruction Light bends around or through these holographic lenses, called Zone Plates, to reconstruct the original object. A series of Zone Plates creates the Diffraction Matrix of our Hologram. If both Object and Reference beams are more fully collimated, ( minimal or no spread as the beams travel through space) the Diffraction Matrix can resemble microscopic lateral lines rather than overlapping circles. The middle of the page on Reflection Hologram Art illustrates zone plates and interference.

AH Zone Plate Graphic by Nancy Gorglione.
AH at the center of a Tigle, or spheres of light in space, in one of the Dzogchen Clear Light Views. Looking like the Zone Plate of a holographic matrix, or electrons orbiting an atom's nucleus, The Holographic View lends itself to diverse interpretations of our Holographic Universe. The Buddhist Clear Light-Dzogchen View holds and molds phenomena as diffracted light held together on a matrix of sound.

The Incarnations of the Pegasus Holograms
Please See Scroll Box on Right

Holographic Books, Catalogs and Posters

Archetypes in Holography: If You Can See It, Its Not There


Self Contained Holograms - Internally illuminated Holograms framed in a box.

Cherry Optical Holography

Welcome to Universal-Hologram, web home for holographic artists, Nancy Gorglione and Greg Cherry. As Cherry Optical Holography, we've made hundreds of unique and beautiful reflection and transmission holograms. These holograms are three dimensional images recorded with laser light onto film or glass plates. We've created dazzling windows of light, from one-of-a-kind holographic art and sculpture; to intricate space-within-space magic. As early artist-engineers in a brand new media, our work has consistently originated archetypes in the Holographic World.


Cherry Optical Holography Optical Set-Up shown with 18 inch overhead collimator



The Universal Hologram is the interconnection of all phenomena. Today, concepts of The Universal Hologram are probably more widely known than any actual holographic image. Our star images on this page are artistic visions of holographic renditions of the Universal Hologram. They are complex transmission diffraction gratings, each illuminated with a bright light, by Nancy Gorglione and Greg Cherry. Gorglione began this series of "universal-holograms" in about 1973, and our exploration into the imaginings of subatomic space continue today. The actual, physical holograms have both depth and projection, all contained within a flat film plane.
(References throughout this digital document.)


Nancy Gorglione has compiled pictures of most of our hundreds of holograms, laser performances and history in holography in the upcoming book, Archetypes in Holography: IF YOU CAN SEE IT, ITS NOT THERE Nancy Gorglione's publications, from The Archives of Holography; to non linear
Holographic Books bring information into the holographic realm. We're also your web hosts, where we hope to take you on a brief visual journey through some of the highlights of our lifetimes exploring holography, true three-dimensional laser photography.


Nancy Gorglione and Greg Cherry of Cherry Optical Holography are early pioneers developing laser scanning as an art form since 1974, often in collaborative performance with musicians and dancers. We were there to spur on the evolution of the laser as artist's tool. Laser light's mesmerizing ability to sync with sound spurred the development of performance structures with laser light a star of the show. From large theater venues to skyscrapers to mountain tops and windswept sand dune beaches, to intimate living room thematic rituals, we fired up the most colorful lasers we could find. The long-running Light Sound Motion Performance Series and the contemporary Laser Light & Percussion Orchestra synchronize light and sound with community artists and percussion orchestras.

As Laser Affiliates, begun in 1974, (later merged into Cherry Optical Holography) we've also carved out parallel careers as sculptors in light. We've created many laser performances, laser environments, laser light shows, and Laser Devices, many utilizing our custom holographic diffraction gratings which are listed - and a few, pictured - within these web pages.

Greg Cherry is introducing his new holographic display system, with self-contained lighting, Holographic Space-in-a-Box is now available in a few of our popular holographic images. We've consistently made some of the best holograms in the world, a few of which are now available for sale within an internally-lit, wood frame box for tabletop viewing.

Petri Dishes Full of Light
- Holographic Interference Seed Stimulation Experiment

Please see Cherry Optical Holography for an overview of our work. Where do we see ourselves going?

The University of Holography or
The University Museum of Holography
with educational facilities and research lab. Let's co-create it. Willing to relocate for the right situation.

We have at least the following:
Several Hundred Masters
at least 100 unique & beautiful holograms in our gallery and lab storage, part of:
440 different original holograms made to date, (plus Image-Plane copies) with about 2/3rds of these sold around the World

The sweetest analog holography facility for artists: Several fully collimated holography cameras with up to 32 inch collimation for Medium Format Holography. A large variety of overhead and tabletop optics and mounts.

Primitive Digital HoloMachine and Moving Camera Rail.
Laser Scanning & Laser Lighting as Art Devices
Propitiatory Holographic Grating Technologies

Greg Cherry's Telescope Hologram

Look inside the projected
telescope eyepiece to view a
spece-within-space scape.

Read more about the Telescope Hologram
and Space-within-Space in the
Reflection Hologram
Scroll box.


Equus/Underwater, A Holographic StageSet
with Laser Lighting
by Nancy Gorglione & Greg Cherry, as Laser Affiliates and Cherry Optical Holography.  Forty custom holograms created a landscape of a horse galloping by the side of a river. Timed lighting varied the holographic colors and imagery in this installation.

by Greg Cherry & Nancy Gorglione

Invitation to a Laser Light & Percussion Orchestra Event, left

TRANSMISSION HOLOGRAMS by Nancy Gorglione & Greg Cherry
A few examples of our many transmission holograms.

Right, Light Thru the Trees, Shadowgram and Rainbow Hologram combined to create an effect of moving leaves and colors. By Nancy Gorglione, 22 by 30 Inches, originated for Equus Underwater, above.
Below, Math Poem, Multichannel Rainbow Hologram by Nancy Gorglione, 12 by 16 inches. Originated for Lawrence Hall of Science Exhibition, Laser: The Light Fantastic.
Below Right, Pitchfork, Rainbow Transmission Hologram by Greg Cherry, 22 by 30 Inches. The Pitchfork tines project out of the film plane about five feet

SEXUS Reflection Hologram Composite by Nancy Gorglione

Cherry Optical Holography

All Contents Copyright © 2017